• Gannet Fleming Coddry and Carpenter, Inc., 1972, Operation Scarlift: Mine Drainage Abatement Measures for the Shamokin Creek Watershed, Project # SL 113, prepared for the PA Department of Environmental Resources. Identifies 54 discharges; recommends 5 active treatment systems and earth-moving for drainage control; not implemented. This study provided an assessment of the watershed. No water treatment resulted from this study, and these data, by themselves, are inadequate for planning passive treatment. (Download 19MB .pdf file)
  • Kirby, C.S., 1995, Shamokin Creek Acid Mine Drainage Assessment, Int. Working Report 001, Bucknell University; a preliminary assessment by Bucknell University of AMD impact
  • Eidem, J. and Moffe, M., 1998, Pretreatment Assessment of the Carbon Run Subwatershed, Bucknell University Internal Working Document 002, available in Bertrand Library, Bucknell University, Lewisburg PA. Click here for a summary.
  • Growitz, D. J, .Reed, L. A., Beard, M. M,, 1985, Reconaisance of Mine Drainage in the Coal Fields of Eastern Pennsylvania, U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 83-4274. (Download 2.2MB .pdf file)
  • Reed, L. A., Beard, M. M., Growitz, D. J., 1987, Quality of Water in Mines in the Western Middle Coal Field, Anthracite Region, East-central Pennsylvania, U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 85-4038 . (Download 3.9MB .pdf file)
  • Becher, Albert E., 1991, Groundwater Resources in and near the Anthracite Basins of Schuylkill and Adjacent Counties, Pennsylvania, United States Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, Water Resource Report 64.
  • Rahn, Perry H., 1992, A method to mitigate acid-mine drainage in the Shamokin area, Pennsylvania, U.S.A, Environm. Geol. Water Sci., 19, 1, 47-53. (recommends flooding entire drainage basin to alleviate AMD and put out fires)
  • Wood, Charles R., 1996, Water Quality of Large Discharges from Mines in the Anthracite Region of Eastern Pennsylvania, U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 95-4243. (Download 2.8MB .pdf file)
  • In the spring of 1999, Civil Engineering students from Bucknell University completed a senior design project for treatment of Site 42.
  • DEP funded wetland enhancement for Sites 38-41 in the Carbon Run subwatershed.
  • Cravotta, C. A. III, and Kirby, C. S., 2004, Effects of Abandoned Coal-Mine Drainage on Streamflow and Water Quality in the Shamokin Creek Basin, Northumberland and Columbia Counties, Pennsylvania, 1999-2001, US Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4311.

Other Resources


A Bucknell class studying the Anthracite Region has prepared a 15-minute videotape showing history, causes and effects of AMD, and methods of treatment. The videotape has been made available to the SCRA so that it can be distributed to libraries and local groups for educational purposes. The tape can be copied and distributed at no cost. Contact the SCRA to borrow the tape (SCRA, PO Box 263, Mt. Carmel, PA 17851, or Jim Koharski; 570-644-0029; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.).